Shared resources used by individuals with no ownership end up depleting it. Common examples include fishing (over-fishing) and forests (deforestation).
One way that has been shown to combat this phenomenon is to create collaboration and shared risk/reward. For example, a fishery that grants shares to a lake where fishermen now benefit from the improving the value of the resource and start collaborating on rules and policies to conserve it.
- Principal-agent problem is a similar issue that can result in the depletion of a shared resource. You could view the individuals as the agents and the ecosystem of animals and plants as the principals whose interests diverge.
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An AOR list (areas of responsibility) prevents a tragedy of the commons at your company. It’s a list of responsibilities—grouped by function—where each responsibility is assigned to one (and only one) person. This makes it clear what the responsibilities are, who owns them at the company, and how to route questions.
When comparing recent technological advancement with the previous century, most of the biggest changes are simulation versus physical. For example, railroads and airplanes compared to networking and computers.
Caring for an object for the purpose of passing down to a future generation helps people think long term. Being and heirloom means it can’t be consumed or depleted and it instills a sense of duty to grow or preserve for successive generations. This helps to combat a tragedy of the commons. As good example of a shared heirloom that promotes long term environmental conservation is the US National Parks.